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在美國買房,首付比例低得驚人

在美國買房,首付比例低得驚人

Megan Leonhardt 2021年09月02日
2020年,美國首次購房者的首付比例中位數只有7%。

在存錢買房時,大多數美國人都以為按照慣例,他們需要存夠房價的20%作為首付。

但美國房地產經紀人協會(National Association of Realtors)的人口統計與行為分析副總裁杰西卡·勞茲表示,首付20%“是最大的謬論” 。

勞茲告訴《財富》雜志,2020年,美國首次購房者的首付比例中位數只有7%,自1989年以來也沒有超過10%。事實上,72%的首次購房者今年支付的首付款不超過20%。

這是因為許多首次購房者使用了低首付計劃和補助,例如基金Chenoa Fund、HomeReady抵押貸款、Home Possible抵押貸款,以及美國住房和城市發展部(U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development)提供的各種聯邦支持貸款和各州推出的項目等。

勞茲說:“很可惜,有些潛在購房者不知道這些項目,或許他們可以更快地擁有自己的房子?!?/p>

Redfin的首席經濟學家達里爾·費爾韋瑟也同意這種觀點,他認為購房人并非一直都需要支付兩成首付。費爾韋瑟告訴《財富》雜志:“你甚至能夠支付3%的首付,只是大部分購房人選擇支付更多的首付款?!?/p>

但勞茲和費爾韋瑟都認為,目前市場競爭激烈,因此支付更高比例的首付甚至全款買房可能是一種競爭優勢。美國房地產經紀人協會的調查發現,今年有接近四分之一購房人(23%)提交了全款報價。費爾韋瑟稱:“購房人應該針對他們計劃在特定地區購買的房屋類型,調查市場競爭狀況?!?/p>

另外值得注意的一點是,首付低于20%的購房人可能需要支付私人抵押貸款保險,這會增加購房開支,不利于提高房屋凈值。費爾韋瑟指出:“在經濟條件允許的情況下,最好首付不低于20%,尤其是在競爭激烈的市場,你可能要與其他財力雄厚的購房人競價。在賣方市場,賣房人通常更愿意選擇首付比例更高的購房人?!?/p>

但勞茲表示,如果購房人希望首付不超過兩成,他們也有各種選擇。她認為,或許他們需要與全款購房人競爭,但賣房人有時候會因為其他一些因素而改變主意,比如靈活的交割日期或者支付更高所謂誠信保證金等。誠信保證金通常為房款的1%至3%。如果交易進展順利,這筆保證金就通??梢杂糜谥Ц督桓钯M用或首付款。

費爾韋瑟指出,購房人也能夠先首付20%通過抵押貸款預先核準,然后在建立第三方托管賬戶時調整為更低的首付比例。他補充說:“如果你的存款足夠首付20%,但你不愿意花光所有儲蓄,這就是一種很好的選擇?!保ㄘ敻恢形木W)

翻譯:劉進龍

審校:汪皓

在存錢買房時,大多數美國人都以為按照慣例,他們需要存夠房價的20%作為首付。

但美國房地產經紀人協會(National Association of Realtors)的人口統計與行為分析副總裁杰西卡·勞茲表示,首付20%“是最大的謬論” 。

勞茲告訴《財富》雜志,2020年,美國首次購房者的首付比例中位數只有7%,自1989年以來也沒有超過10%。事實上,72%的首次購房者今年支付的首付款不超過20%。

這是因為許多首次購房者使用了低首付計劃和補助,例如基金Chenoa Fund、HomeReady抵押貸款、Home Possible抵押貸款,以及美國住房和城市發展部(U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development)提供的各種聯邦支持貸款和各州推出的項目等。

勞茲說:“很可惜,有些潛在購房者不知道這些項目,或許他們可以更快地擁有自己的房子?!?/p>

Redfin的首席經濟學家達里爾·費爾韋瑟也同意這種觀點,他認為購房人并非一直都需要支付兩成首付。費爾韋瑟告訴《財富》雜志:“你甚至能夠支付3%的首付,只是大部分購房人選擇支付更多的首付款?!?/p>

但勞茲和費爾韋瑟都認為,目前市場競爭激烈,因此支付更高比例的首付甚至全款買房可能是一種競爭優勢。美國房地產經紀人協會的調查發現,今年有接近四分之一購房人(23%)提交了全款報價。費爾韋瑟稱:“購房人應該針對他們計劃在特定地區購買的房屋類型,調查市場競爭狀況?!?/p>

另外值得注意的一點是,首付低于20%的購房人可能需要支付私人抵押貸款保險,這會增加購房開支,不利于提高房屋凈值。費爾韋瑟指出:“在經濟條件允許的情況下,最好首付不低于20%,尤其是在競爭激烈的市場,你可能要與其他財力雄厚的購房人競價。在賣方市場,賣房人通常更愿意選擇首付比例更高的購房人?!?/p>

但勞茲表示,如果購房人希望首付不超過兩成,他們也有各種選擇。她認為,或許他們需要與全款購房人競爭,但賣房人有時候會因為其他一些因素而改變主意,比如靈活的交割日期或者支付更高所謂誠信保證金等。誠信保證金通常為房款的1%至3%。如果交易進展順利,這筆保證金就通??梢杂糜谥Ц督桓钯M用或首付款。

費爾韋瑟指出,購房人也能夠先首付20%通過抵押貸款預先核準,然后在建立第三方托管賬戶時調整為更低的首付比例。他補充說:“如果你的存款足夠首付20%,但你不愿意花光所有儲蓄,這就是一種很好的選擇?!保ㄘ敻恢形木W)

翻譯:劉進龍

審校:汪皓

When it comes to saving for and buying a home, most Americans rely on the general rule of thumb that they need to have 20% of the home price saved for the down payment.

But the 20% down payment is “the biggest myth that’s out there,” said Jessica Lautz, vice president of demographics and behavioral insights at the National Association of Realtors (NAR).

Last year, the median down payment for first-time homebuyers was just 7%, and it hasn’t risen above 10% since 1989, Lautz told Fortune. In fact, 72% of first-time homebuyers put down less than 20% for their down payment this year.

That’s because there are actually a lot of first-time homebuyers who take advantage of low down-payment programs and assistance, such as the Chenoa Fund, the HomeReady and Home Possible mortgages, as well as a variety of federally backed loans through the U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development and state programs.

“Unfortunately there are potential homebuyers who are out there and not aware these programs exist, and maybe could enter homeownership significantly faster,” Lautz said.

Redfin chief economist Daryl Fairweather agrees, saying that a 20% down payment is not always necessary. “You may be able to put as little as 3% down, though most buyers put down more,” Fairweather told Fortune.

But both Lautz and Fairweather said that in today’s competitive market, it can be an advantage to come in with a higher down payment, or even better, an all-cash offer. Nearly a quarter of homebuyers, 23%, submitted an all-cash offer for a home this year, according to NAR’s research. “Buyers should research how competitive the market is for the type of home they want to buy in their area,” Fairweather said.

It’s also worth noting that homebuyers who put down less than 20% will likely have to pay for private mortgage insurance, which is an added housing expense that doesn’t help with building home equity. “If you can afford it, offering to put down at least 20% is ideal, especially in a competitive market like this one where you’ll likely compete against other well-financed buyers in bidding wars,” Fairweather said. “When sellers can choose from multiple offers, they usually prefer higher down-payment amounts.”

Those who are looking to put down less than 20% for their down payment do have options, however, Lautz said. Although they may be competing with all-cash offers, she noted that sometimes sellers can be swayed by things like being flexible with closing dates or putting more money toward the so-called earnest money check, which is a good faith deposit that typically ranges from 1% to 3% of the home price. If the sale goes smoothly, that money can typically then be applied to help cover closing costs or to the down payment.

There’s also nothing stopping homebuyers from getting preapproved for a mortgage with a 20% down payment, then switching to a lower down payment during escrow, Fairweather said. “That can be a good option if you have the savings for a 20% down payment but you don’t feel comfortable putting your entire life savings on the line,” he added.

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